Latvia's Annual National Program 2002
On 10September 2001 Latvia's NATO Integration Council reviewed and accepted draft of Latvia's Annual National Programme 2002 (ANP 2002). On 18 September ANP 2002 was approved by the Government and on 28 September 2001 submitted to Dr Günther Altenburg, NATO Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs.
Latvia's Annual National Programme 2002 is developed on the basis of experience gained while preparing ANP 2000 and ANP 2001. It is also designed, taking into account NATO "Progress Report on Latvia's Annual National Programme 2001" and valuable comments provided by Allied countries during bilateral consultations, as well as fundamental ANP development principles.
Several new aspects have been incorporated in ANP 2002. Overview of force structure reflects our new financially substantiated force structure, which has been adjusted to the needs and goals of Latvia and harmonised with the standards set by NATO. Operative and mobilisation planning constitutes an important part of State defence planning and plays a significant role in defining operative duties and capabilities in case of crisis situation. Development of Host Nation Support system is an important element in the capabilities of the receipt of reinforcements in the territory of Latvia and the provision of adequate supplies. NATO integration issues are discussed in the general chapter "Integration into NATO", where main emphasis is on interoperability with armed forces of NATO and partner countries.
ANP 2002 consists of six chapters and three annexes:
1. Political/economic issues.
2. Defence/military issues.
3. Financial substantiation - resources.
4. Security issues.
5. Legal issues.
6. Implementation of Annual National Programme.
Annexes reflect several elements of society integration, ANP 2002 implementation plan, as well as a half-year report on the implementation of Latvia's Annual National Programme 2001.
The chapter on political/economic issues cover the following subjects: democracy and human rights in Latvia, democratic control over National Armed Forces (NAF), economic development, Latvia's accession to the EU - negotiation process, relations with neighbours and regional co-operation, Latvia's contribution to the strengthening of transatlantic security and stability, public support for Latvia's membership in NATO and information policy, crisis management and environmental protection.
The subsection describing the rule of law and democracy in Latvia explains the open attitude of the state to the research of history. Taking into account the fact that Latvia had been occupied by both Germany and the Soviet Union, some historical events should not be assessed in a one-sided manner. ANP 2002 expresses Latvia's condemnation of the crimes committed by both regimes.
ANP 2002 also explains the national policy in the fields of social integration and respect for human rights. The plan describes state's support for minority education, naturalisation process and the encouragement of Latvian language training. The subsection presents the national programme "Integration of the Society of Latvia" and informs about allocated financial resources to the programme.
The subsection on the democratic control over NAF describes procedures established in legislation and implemented of the control by the President, the Parliament, the Cabinet of Ministers and the Minister of Defence through his participation in the decision-making concerning the NAF. The subsection emphasises efforts to facilitate public understanding of and support for the NAF. ANP 2002 describes work to improve legislation related to the defence issues, primarily the National Security Law, the Law on National Armed Forces and draft of the Compulsory Military Service Law.
The subsection on the economic development presents Latvia's macro economic development figures and describes Latvia's progress in building free and functioning market economy, investment-friendly business environment and privatisation process. The evaluation and forecasts by international financial organisations are also included. The subsection presents Latvia's macroeconomic figures (GDP, inflation, export and import, budget deficit, amount of investments), which currently are among the best in Europe. Involvement of NGO "Delna" in the ongoing processes is emphasised.
The subsection on Latvia's accession to the EU describes the achievements in the EU integration process, namely, the progress achieved in the accession negotiations, and the plans for further harmonisation of legislation.
The Plan describes the relations between Latvia and her neighbouring countries - Estonia, Lithuania, Byelorussia, Russia and co-operation with the Scandinavian countries and USA. Special attention is attributed to the detailed description of the mechanisms of co-operation among the Baltic States that have been recognised by NATO as an excellent example for the existing NATO Member States.
A special subsection is dedicated to the contribution of Latvia to the stability and security in Europe through participation in the peacekeeping missions in the Balkans, co-operation with international organisations, such as UN, OSCE and involvement in the arms control activities.
It is a well-known fact that since 1996 units of Latvia's armed forces have been taking part in international operations in Bosnia - Herzegovina, Kosovo, as well in the North Caucasus and Georgia. Participation in these missions asserts the real ability and commitment of Latvia to become a full-fledged member of NATO and allows substantially consolidating co-operation between Latvia and NATO Member States and partner countries.
NATO positively values the inclusion of subsection on public information policy in the Plan describing the efforts of state institutions to study the public opinion, such as the opinion-poll on Latvia's membership in NATO, and to inform the public about NATO-related issues with the help of NGOs and joint working groups.
Last two subsections deal with crisis management and environmental protection. The former describes the prescribed reaction of state institutions to different crisis situations and the steps taken to establish a united crisis management system and improve the existing system. The latter enumerates environmental challenges for Latvia, such as, utilisation of natural resources, preservation of water quality, control of the sources of pollution etc.
The chapter on defence/military issues presents activities, the implementation of which will improve and develop military preparedness of the NAF, and ensure Latvia's readiness for NATO membership.
In order to improve self-defence capabilities, as well as interoperability with NATO Latvia has set the following top priorities for the development of Latvia's Defence system in 2002:
- Improvement of Latvia's NAF combat and self-defence capabilities based upon interoperability with NATO and the ability to operate under NATO/EU - led operations to face the security risks of the 21st century;
- Enhancing of efficiency of NAF structure and implementation of four (reducing) military regions;
- Development of an appropriate Host Nation Support system;
- Further development of common Baltic military projects - BALTBAT, BALTNET, BALTRON, BALTDEFCOL etc.;
- Participation in peacekeeping operations;
- Improvement of Defence planning and Planning, Programming and Budgeting (PPBS) system;
- Development of Crisis Management and Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C4I) capabilities;
- Integration of military education and personnel management systems. Improvement of infrastructure of training centres;
- Development of Integrated Logistics Management and Procurement systems;
- Ensuring public support to the Defence system and Latvia's integration into NATO.
The defence planning system consists of elaborated, regularly revised and specified plans and conceptual documents. The defence planning system is worked out based on the main principles of the national defence system. It provides for annual, cyclical specification and revision of plans and concepts. The defence planning cycles of the NAF and the Forces branches include 12 year (long-term), 4 year (medium) and 1-year (short-term) plans. The following tasks are set to be the most important for the defence planning:
- To define clearly the priorities for the NAF development, based on political guidelines;
- To involve in the planning process as many institutions as possible in order to ensure the required support to the NAF development and the achievement of aims;
- To establish the NAF structure, define precisely the aims and operative tasks for peace time, as well as for wartime;
- To introduce the state defence aims in accordance with financial possibilities.
Being a NATO aspirant, Latvia includes NATO requirements in its defence planning documents.
In 2002, Latvia will pay special attention to the following areas, which will be included and presented in Latvia's Annual National Programme 2002: operational and mobilisation planning, the review of the Force structure and the Host Nation Support capabilities.
Operational and mobilisation planning is a full-fledged constituent part of the State defence planning system, which is of essential importance for determination of operational tasks and capabilities in case of the State crisis. Mobilisation and operational plans are closely connected. They are worked out simultaneously in compliance with the total defence principles. Drafting of these plans was started in 2000, and it will remain a priority over the next four years as well. The above-mentioned plans present the preparation of the NAF Headquarters for putting into effect the defence plans (Headquarters' exercises), the general increase in understanding among officers about the planning process and participation in it, as well as the co-operation in the planning process with the civil sector of the total defence system. In 2001, Latvia's mobilisation concept was worked out and approved, the draft of the Mobilisation Law was prepared and submitted for consideration to the Cabinet of Ministers, as well as other operational concepts and plans were confirmed.
Latvia has reviewed its Armed Forces structure in order to establish the NAF structure financially well grounded and maintainable within the framework of the State defence budget, as well as with the aim to develop self-defence capabilities. In the outcome, more efficient organisation structure of the NAF was worked out with clearly defined tasks, command structure and personnel. At the same time, the new structure of the NAF ensures interoperability with NATO requirements and the Forces delegation to peacekeeping operations, and capability for Article 5 operations of the Washington Treaty. The review of the Forces structure was approved during the consultations with NATO in 19+1 format in the end of 2001. The main difference will be in the fact that the Headquarters of all Forces services will be liquidated, and new wartime and peacetime structures of the NAF will be established in conformity with Latvia's resources and NATO requirements.
Host Nation Support (HNS) system is a part of the NAF operational and logistics planning. Establishing of an adequate and flexible HNS will guarantee logistics support for the Forces involved in operations. HNS is a significant factor for the development of Latvia's defence system in the context of NATO integration, i.e., Article 5 operations of the Washington Treaty and other operations. Latvia has worked out its HNS concept project, which was discussed in the consultations with NATO in November 2001. The inter-ministerial working group was established as well, which will further develop the HNS concept and determine and evaluate the tasks and participation of other State government institutions. In 2002, Latvia plans to approve the drafted HNS concept in the Government, as well as to organise consultations with experts from NATO and the Baltic states to develop the HNS system.
In 2001, the second cycle of defence planning was accomplished in the NAF, simultaneously carrying out the necessary amendments. The main priority of the NAF long-term development plans and structures is the improvement of self-defence abilities, as well as participation in Article 5 operations of the Washington Treaty and international operations. The following priorities are set for the NAF long-term development:
- To reorganise the NAF peacetime and wartime structure;
- To establish the command, control, communications and intelligence system;
- To develop all level personnel management and training system;
- To establish and develop new training system for the NAF commanding staff in order they could operate using modern management methods, show initiative and flexibility in decision making;
- To establish logistics system;
- To develop Host Nation Support capabilities;
- To purchase equipment for the NAF modernisation and mobilisation forces;
- To establish mobilisation system, develop interoperability and co-operation with NATO member states;
- To develop Air Defence capabilities.
The following tasks are listed as prior for the NAF development in 2002: to begin the reorganisation of the NAF in accordance with the Forces structure review and costs; reorganisation of the National Guard; working out of the wartime and peacetime management, control and communications system; improvement of the NAF operational plans; improvement of the NAF Crisis Management capabilities; the baltification of the common defence projects of the Baltic states; improvement of the training for officers, non-commission officers and soldiers; modernisation of ships; improvement of the search and rescue helicopters; improvement of the NAF report system.
Latvia continues to increase the potential of the State defence system, as well as the NAF abilities to achieve the interoperability with NATO, which, in its turn, depends on the preparation of adequately qualified personnel and the improvement of the personnel management system. In Latvia's ANP 2002, special attention is given to personnel training issues, evaluating the criteria of personnel management, education of military and civil personnel, and their ability to adapt themselves to NATO political and military structures' work. Great attention is given to the development of Military Education and Training system, which consists of four parts: the Conscript service soldiers', the national guards', NCOs and officers' training system.
Latvia's ANP 2002 separately considers the issues on military infrastructure development, which are the basis for the attainment of the goals set by the defence system. All infrastructure development and maintenance projects are based on the NAF long-term development plans. The goals of the development plans are to ensure the combat readiness of the units, improve training facilities, and ensure effective utilisation of resources and environmental protection. The improvement of the Conscript service soldiers living conditions, reconstruction of the buildings of military training centres, construction of necessary military facilities are stated to be among priorities in the development of military infrastructure in 2002.
International co-operation is especially emphasised in Latvia's ANP 2002, which includes integration in NATO, international training, common co-operation projects in the defence area of the Baltic states, as well as bilateral co-operation.
The subsection on integration in NATO presents several aspects of Latvia's integration process in NATO: Planning of integration in NATO, the Planning and Review process, participation in peacekeeping operations and training, Latvia's participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme, co-operation within the structures and committees of NATO Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.
Latvia, being NATO aspirant, integrates in its planning documents the principles and requirements, which correspond with Latvia's present status regarding NATO, where the implementation of the above-mentioned requirements is a precondition for full integration in NATO political and military structures.
Within the framework of the Planning and Review process, the interoperability of the NAF with NATO requirements is defined. Latvia considers the interoperability of the NAF with NATO armed forces to be a significant precondition for successful co-operation during peacekeeping operations, crisis management and war operations inside and outside the territory of Latvia. Within the framework of Planning and review process, Latvia has nominated the NAF units available for NATO-led peace support operations. The development of these units is directed to the improvement of self-defence capabilities and interoperability with NATO, which ensures successful use of these units for local needs as well as for international missions.
In military area, the PfP programme still stays the main available tool, which helps Latvia to prepare for the implementation of NATO military requirements. In 2000, within the framework of Individual Partnership Co-operation Programme between Latvia and NATO (IPP), Latvia participated in 217 activities. In 2001, Latvia plans to participate in 193 PfP activities, including 19 PfP co-operation areas.
In NATO integration subsection, the work accomplished by Latvia in 2001 is shown, aimed at introduction of NATO standards, Latvia's participation in the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, as well as the participation in international training and exercises. In 2000, Latvia participated in 12 PfP exercises, and in 2001, Latvia plans to participate in 17 PfP exercises.
In the subsection of Joint Baltic co-operation projects in defence area, the information is presented not only about the continued development of the present projects (Baltic Battalion - BALTBAT, Baltic Air Surveillance Network - BALTNET, Baltic Defence College - BALTDEFCOL, Baltic Squadron - BALTRON), but also the development of such new military projects of the Baltic states as BALTLOG, which will co-ordinate and integrate the logistics and supply systems in the Baltic states over a longer time period. Project BALTMED will develop the co-operation among military medical units of the Baltic States. Project BALTPERS was started in 2001 and it means common military personnel management and registration system of the Baltic States. Military co-operation of the Baltic States is significant in view of the fact that it increases the capabilities of mutual interoperability of the military forces of the Baltic States with NATO and improves the usage of their defence resources.
In the subsection on international bilateral co-operation, its main task is to ensure the international assistance for the development and realisation of the NAF development plans and interoperability abilities. The NAF co-operates with almost 30 countries, performing 400 - 500 bilateral co-operation activities annually. This year, the emphasis is laid on military personnel training (officers, cadets), material technical assistance, experts' consultations and co-operation among the Armed Forces units.
The chapter on financial planning/ resources summarises information on resources allocated to defence, security and integration into NATO, the utilisation of these resources, priorities of expenditure, investment plans, control over expenditure, etc. Defence, security and integration into NATO will remain a priority in the national budget in 2022 and for the next year. It is confirmed in the promulgated "Law on the Financing of the National Defence", adopted by the Parliament on 5April 2001 that envisages the increase of the defence budget up to 1.75% of GDP in 2002 and up to 2% of GDP in 2003.
The Resources planning section describes the dynamics of the increase of the budget, division of the budget among personnel salaries, maintenance costs and investments, including the largest investment projects in 2002.
The resource section attributes particular attention to the supervision of the resource planning and expenditure.
The task force that consists of specialists in the fields of planning, logistics, personnel and finance with an aim to work out the plan of the total costs of the envisaged NAF structure for the period of 2001-2008 was formed in May 2001. The activities of the task force are open and transparent; the task force considers all recommendations and introduces the changes that have emerged as a result of NATO recommendations in 2001, when NATO Progress report on development of Latvia's defence system was received.
The chapter on security issues focuses on the protection of classified information in accordance with NATO requirements. It reports on the measures already implemented or planned for 2002 to improve the protection of classified information: expansion of the classified information register system; improvement of the security regime vis-à-vis classified information in the state institutions involved in NATO integration process and in Latvian embassies abroad; improvement of the circulation and storage system for classified information; training of personnel education in accordance with NATO requirements.
The chapter describes plans pertaining to amendments in legislation and participation in NATO seminars for candidate countries on the protection of classified information. Particular emphasis is laid on the protection of information transmitted by electronic carriers.
The chapter on legal issues discusses harmonisation of Latvia's legislation with the practice established in NATO Member States pertaining to the membership-related issues and with the common principles of NATO. Although legally Latvia will be entitled to join the North Atlantic Treaty of 1949 and other international documents regulating the activities of NATO only after the accession, Latvia may already take all necessary measures to identify and eliminate controversies and ambiguity. The chapter describes the legal system that regulates the field of defence and the amendments envisaged therein. Latvia has analysed the Constitution and other national and international legal acts that has helped to initiate necessary legislative amendments.
The efforts commenced already in 2000 towards abolishment of legal restrictions have resulted in amendments to the laws "On Participation of the National Armed Forces of Latvia in International Operations", "The Status of Foreign Armed Forces in Latvia" and to the respective regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers.
The chapter on the implementation of ANP describes the co-ordination among state institutions in the execution of ANP 2002 and the implementation of earlier plans. In 1999 a special internal co-ordination and control mechanism for the co-ordination of the work of state institutions was devised to supervise the implementation of ANP. The main co-ordinating body is the NATO Integration Council of Latvia, chaired by the Prime Minister and consisting of representatives of the directly involved institutions: the Ministries of Defence, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Transport, the Crisis Management Centre, Constitutional Defence Bureau and the Chair of the Parliamentary Defence and Internal Affairs Committee.
The chapter emphasises the importance of the exchange of information on the national level and with NATO institutions. The chapter describes measures taken by Latvia to improve control and co-ordination such as nomination of experts, regular reporting system and implementation of "direct check" and "direct responsibility" principles.
The chapter presents information on the successful implementation of ANP 2001 and the main achievements of Latvia.